Hsinchu City, or Chuchien of the old days, used to be the settlement area of the Doukas tribes of the Pingpu People. In the 30th year of Ching Dynasty Emperor Kanghsi's reign (1691 AD), Shih-chieh Wang of Chuanchou, Fuchien and around 180 members of his clan arrived and settled in Chuchien. They were the first group of migrants from the Mainland to develop Hsinchu, the first wave of Han immigrants that spark the migration rush from the mainland. The second migration rush occurred during the 3rd year of Ching Dynasty Emperor Yungcheng's reign (1725 AD). Li-peng Hsu of Lufeng, Kuangtung led the waves of migration when he landed in the shores of Hungmao Harbor, Hsinchuangtsai northwest of Chuchien. He started the migration wave of Hakka immigrants that came and developed the territories of Hsinchu, Chupei, Hsinfeng, and Hsiangshan, as we know them today. In 1949, when the Kuomintang Government moved to Taiwan, it also brought with it its entire military and their families. This opened a new waved of immigration from the Mainland. Hsinchu, at the time, became the home of the air force base and facility. Air force officers and their families were first relocated into the residences and schools vacated by the Japanese Government withdrawal; later, the government constructed military villages to accommodate its military personnel and their families.

The period from 1956 to 1958 saw the establishment of the National Tsinghua University and the National Chiao Tung University in Hsinchu. Later, the International Industrial Technology Research Institute Inc. promoted the creation of the Hsinchu Science-based Industrial Park (HSIP) in 1980. This development turned Hsinchu into the cradle of an international technology industry. The establishment and development of the Hsinchu Science-based Industrial Park also created an excellent employment environment and opened new employment opportunities. It enticed the movement of technologists to the Hsinchu area. This economic development started the fourth migration wave to Hsinchu.

Immigrants from different walks of live led to the birth of a diversified immigrant culture in Hsinchu City. Changes of the passing years created a new cultural blend that has become the hallmark of the present-day Chuchien atmosphere.

The Tamshui Hall was established in the 1st year of Ching Dynasty Emperor Yungcheng's reign. In the 6th year of Ching Dynasty Emperor Kuanghsu's reign, the district of Tamshui and Hsinchu was divided, thus giving way to the creation of the Hsinchu County. In 1920, the Japanese established the Hsinchu shire and the public office for its administration. The shire was upgraded to a city in 1927 and administration was placed under the city administration office. In 1941, Hsiangshan village and a portion of the six villages of Chiukang were merged to expand jurisdictional area. After the recovery of Taiwan in 1945, the Japanese relinquished its administration of the Hsinchu state to the ROC Government, which until October 1946, the Taiwan Provincial Government rezoned the jurisdictional areas in line with the implementation of its local autonomous policy. Hsinchu officially became a county-governed city and its former state capitol became an administration hall; it had jurisdiction over seven district administration halls. In 1950, the provincial jurisdictional area was rezoned. The new alignment placed twenty-one county-governed counties and cities under the provincial jurisdictional zone. Hsinchu city and the present-day Hsinchu County were merged together to form the Hsinchu County; center of administration was located in Hsinchu City. Later, industrial and commercial development, as well as the establishment of university and college campuses and research facilities and the establishment of the HSIP led to the prosperity of Hsinchu City. In view of the multifaceted coordination and untiring efforts, Hsinchu was placed under the jurisdiction of the Provincial Government by presidential decree on July 1st, 1982. The township of Hsiangshan was formerly under the jurisdiction of Hsinchu County and placed its jurisdiction under Hsinchu City.

Hsinchu City is located in the northwest of Hsinchu at the center of the Hsinchu plains. It is flanked by hills on its east, south and north; however its western side runs to the coast. Its southwest ends run into Chunan, Miaoli County. Hills lay adjacent to Paoshan Township on its south. Its eastern end is links up to Chutung, and its northeast end looks towards Touchien Creek and Chupei City. The Taiwan Strait lies on the west of Hsinchu. Total land area amounted to around 104.1 square kilometers. It sits between two metropolitan cities. It is 78 kilometers away from Taipei City and around 91 kilometers from Taichung City. Total population as of the 2009 statistics is 409,365, or 1.77% of the total national population of 23,119,772; hence as of yearend 2009, the population density is 3932.42 persons per square kilometer.